2 Piece Nervous System Neuron

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Model Number: NH-74563

Brand: Niche Healthcare


This item, magnified 2,500 times, displays the structure of a typical neuron. The sectioned soma shows all the internal cellular organs including nucleus, Golgi complex, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The dendrite can be opened into two parts to reveal the internal structures such as the Schwann cell and myelin sheath.

SKU: VS87590944 Category: Tag:


Categories         Anatomical Model

Subject               Medical Science

Material              Eco-friendly PVC

Application       School/Hospital/Laboratory


Neurons, also known as nerve cells, are the fundamental units of the nervous system. They are specialized cells that transmit information throughout the body using electrical and chemical signals. Here are the key features and functions of neurons:


  • Cell Body (Soma): Contains the nucleus and other organelles. It is the metabolic centre of the neuron.
  • Dendrites: Branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons and conduct these messages toward the cell body.
  • Axon: A long, thin projection that transmits electrical impulses (action potentials) away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands. Axons can be quite long, sometimes extending over a meter.
  • Myelin Sheath: A fatty layer that covers many axons, insulating them and increasing the speed at which impulses travel. The myelin sheath is interrupted by gaps called nodes of Ranvier.
  • Axon Terminals (Synaptic Terminals): The ends of the axon that release neurotransmitters into the synapse, the gap between neurons, to communicate with other neurons.


  • Transmission of Information: Neurons transmit information via electrical impulses (action potentials) that travel along the axon. When the impulse reaches the axon terminals, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters.
  • Synaptic Communication: Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptors on the dendrites of neighbouring neurons, influencing whether the next neuron will generate an action potential.

Types of Neurons:

  • Sensory Neurons (Afferent Neurons): Carry information from sensory receptors (e.g., in the skin, eyes, ears) toward the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Motor Neurons (Efferent Neurons): Carry information from the CNS to muscles or glands to produce movement or secretions.
  • Interneurons: Connect neurons within the CNS, processing information and coordinating responses. They are the most numerous type of neuron.
  • Role in the Nervous System:
  • Central Nervous System (CNS): Neurons in the brain and spinal cord process information and control responses.
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Neurons outside the CNS transmit information between the CNS and the rest of the body.


  • Action Potential: An electrical impulse that travels along the axon due to the movement of ions (sodium and potassium) across the neuron’s membrane.
  • Synaptic Transmission: When the action potential reaches the axon terminal, it causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. These neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, influencing its electrical state.
  • Neuroplasticity: Neurons have the ability to change their connections and behaviour in response to new information, sensory stimulation, development, damage, or dysfunction. This ability, known as neuroplasticity, underlies learning, memory, and recovery from brain injuries.

Neurons are integral to the functioning of the nervous system, allowing organisms to perceive their environment, process information, and respond appropriately.


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