Mediastinum Training Model

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Model Number: NH-17893

Brand: Niche Healthcare 

460*260*310            

This life size model is composed of 5 parts, including a 2-part heart that provides an interior view of the chambers and valves.

The sternum and thymus are removable to reveal the pericardial sac and the major pulmonary and systematic vessels. The trachea and oesophagus are shown entering the mediastinum through the superior thoracic aperture; the inferior thoracic aperture is delimitated from the diaphragm musculature.

SKU: VS26375832 Category: Tag:

Description

Categories         Anatomical Model

Subject               Medical Science

Material              Eco-friendly PVC

Application       School/Hospital/Laboratory

 

The mediastinum is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity, situated between the two pleural cavities (which contain the lungs). It is a complex space that houses several vital structures, including the heart, major blood vessels, oesophagus, trachea, and various nerves and lymphatic structures. The mediastinum is divided into several parts for descriptive purposes.

Anatomy of the Mediastinum

Superior Mediastinum:

Location: Above the level of the sternal angle and the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4).

Contents:

Thymus gland (especially prominent in children)

Great vessels: aorta, brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery

Veins: superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins

  • Trachea and oesophagus
  • Thoracic duct (part of the lymphatic system)
  • Valgus and phrenic nerves

Inferior Mediastinum:

Divided into three parts: anterior, middle, and posterior.

Anterior Mediastinum:

Location: Between the sternum and the pericardium.

Contents:

  • Fat and connective tissue
  • Lymph nodes
  • Part of the thymus gland (particularly in younger individuals)

Middle Mediastinum:

Location: Centrally located within the thoracic cavity.

Contents:

Heart and pericardium

Roots of the great vessels: ascending aorta, pulmonary trunk, superior vena cava

Main bronchi

Phrenic nerves

Posterior Mediastinum:

  • Location: Between the pericardium and the vertebral column.

Contents:

  • Descending thoracic aorta
  • Oesophagus
  • Thoracic duct
  • Azygos and hemiazygos veins
  • Sympathetic trunks and splanchnic nerves

Functions of the Mediastinum

  • Structural Support: Provides a central partition that holds major thoracic structures in place.
  • Protection: Shields the heart, major blood vessels, and other critical structures from injury.
  • Pathways for Structures: Serves as a conduit for air, food, and fluids through the trachea and oesophagus.
  • Lymphatic Drainage: Contains lymph nodes and vessels that play a role in immune defence and fluid balance.

Clinical Significance

Diseases and Conditions:

  • Mediastinitis: Inflammation of the mediastinum, often due to infection or after surgery.
  • Mediastinal Tumours: Can include thymomas, lymphomas, and germ cell tumours.
  • Aortic Aneurysms: Enlargement of the aorta within the mediastinum.
  • Trauma: Injuries can lead to hemorrhage or pneumomediastinum (air in the mediastinum).

Diagnostic Imaging:

  • X-ray: Initial imaging modality to evaluate the mediastinum.
  • CT Scan: Provides detailed cross-sectional images, useful for assessing masses, lymph nodes, and vascular abnormalities.
  • MRI: Offers high-resolution images, particularly useful for soft tissue evaluation.

Surgical Interventions:

  • Mediastinoscopy: A procedure to examine and biopsy lymph nodes or masses within the mediastinum.
  • Thoracotomy: Surgical access to the thoracic cavity, sometimes required for treatment of mediastinal conditions.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the mediastinum is crucial for diagnosing and managing thoracic diseases and conditions.

 

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