Shoulder Joint Training Model.

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Model Number: 8110856

Brand: Niche Healthcare

Size: 17.5x15x21CM.

Demonstrates abduction, adduction, anteversion, retroversion and internal / external rotation. Include flexible, artificial ligaments. Life-size, on stand. 

SKU: NH-39768 Category: Tag:


Categories         Anatomical Model

Subject               Medical Science

Material              Eco-friendly PVC

Application       School/Hospital/Laboratory


The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is one of the most mobile joints in the human body, allowing for a wide range of motion. Here’s a detailed look at its anatomy, function, and associated ligaments:

Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint

Bones Involved:

  • Humerus: The upper arm bone.
  • Scapula: The shoulder blade.
  • Clavicle: The collarbone.

Joint Articulations:

  • Glenohumeral Joint: The primary joint of the shoulder, where the head of the humerus fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula.
  • Acromioclavicular Joint: The joint between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle.
  • Sternoclavicular Joint: The joint between the sternum (breastbone) and the clavicle.
  • Scapulothoracic Articulation: A functional (not true anatomical) joint where the scapula moves over the thoracic rib cage.


  • Flexion: Raising the arm forward.
  • Extension: Moving the arm backward.
  • Abduction: Raising the arm to the side away from the body.
  • Adduction: Bringing the arm back toward the body.
  • Internal Rotation: Rotating the arm inward toward the body.
  • External Rotation: Rotating the arm outward away from the body.
  • Circumduction: Moving the arm in a circular motion.

Ligaments of the Shoulder Joint

Glenohumeral Ligaments:

  • Superior Glenohumeral Ligament: Provides stability to the front of the shoulder.
  • Middle Glenohumeral Ligament: Helps stabilize the joint during arm movements.
  • Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament: The primary stabilizer of the shoulder, especially when the arm is abducted and externally rotated.

Coracohumeral Ligament:

  • Location: Extends from the coracoid process of the scapula to the greater tubercle of the humerus.
  • Function: Supports the superior aspect of the shoulder joint.

Coracoacromial Ligament:

  • Location: Extends from the coracoid process to the acromion of the scapula.
  • Function: Forms the coracoacromial arch, preventing superior displacement of the humeral head.

Transverse Humeral Ligament:

  • Location: Spans the bicipital groove of the humerus.
  • Function: Holds the long head of the biceps tendon in place.


  • Subacromial Bursa: Located between the acromion and the supraspinatus tendon, reducing friction.
  • Subdeltoid Bursa: Located between the deltoid muscle and the shoulder joint capsule, reducing friction.

Muscles Involved (Rotator Cuff Muscles)

  • Supraspinatus: Assists in abduction of the arm.
  • Infraspinatus: Facilitates external rotation of the arm.
  • Teres Minor: Assists in external rotation and adduction.
  • Subscapularis: Responsible for internal rotation of the arm.

Other Key Muscles

  • Deltoid: Major muscle responsible for shoulder abduction.
  • Pectoralis Major: Assists in flexion, adduction, and internal rotation.
  • Latissimus Dorsi: Aids in extension, adduction, and internal rotation.
  • Biceps Brachii: Assists in shoulder flexion.
  • Trapezius and Serratus Anterior: Involved in scapular movement and stabilization.


The shoulder joint’s primary role is to provide a wide range of motion, essential for various activities such as lifting, throwing, and reaching. Its extensive mobility comes at the cost of stability, making it reliant on the surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments for support.

Clinical Relevance

The shoulder joint is susceptible to various injuries and conditions, such as:

  • Rotator Cuff Tears: Damage to the muscles or tendons of the rotator cuff.
  • Dislocations: When the head of the humours is displaced from the glenoid cavity.
  • Impingement Syndrome: Compression of the tendons or bursa in the shoulder.
  • Arthritis: Degeneration of the joint, leading to pain and stiffness.
  • Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae, causing pain and restricted movement.

Proper functioning and stability of the shoulder joint are crucial for maintaining upper body mobility and performing everyday tasks.



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